APUSH Chapter 4 Outline

Topics: Colonialism, British Empire, Thirteen Colonies Pages: 6 (1878 words) Published: September 17, 2014

Chapter 4: The Bonds of Empire, 1660-1750
A. Rebellion and War, 1660-1713
The Restoration (1660) did not resolve England’s political conflicts within colonies. a. Royal Centralization, 1660-1688
1. Restoration monarchs had little use for representative government. Proprietor of New York (future James II) forbade the NY assembly (lower legislative chamber) to meet. 2. Massachusetts persisted in self-government, insisting voting rights on property ownership rather than church membership. In 1661, citizens were declared free from laws & decrees from English except for war. As punishment for ignoring the Navigation Acts, Charles II punished the colony by carving New Hampshire out of it but declared it a royal colony in 1684 and revoked its charter (foundation of the city upon a hill) 3. James II consolidated Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Plymouth into Dominion of New England in 1686. 4. Sir Edmund Andros became governor of Dominion of New England. b. The Glorious Revolution, 1688-1689

1. Charles II and James II issued decrees allowing Catholics to hold high office and woship openly. English tolerated James’ conversion to Catholicism because heirs (Mary and Anne) were Anglican. 2. Revolution of 1688, Glorious Revolution, created a “limited monarchy” 3. Crown was required to summon Parliament once a year, sign all its bills, respect traditional civil liberties. 4. King William II and Mary of England (overthrew James) dismantled Dominion of New England. 5. New York rebelled, Leisler’s Rebellion, and seized the harbor’s main fort on May 31, 1689. Then Captain Jacob Leisler took command of the colony and was charged with treason for firing on troops & went to the gallows. 6. Maryland made their religion Protestant in 1692. Catholics lost right to vote, and could only worship in private. 7. Revolutionary events of 1688-1689 changed colonists’ political climate, reestablished legislative government, and ensured religious freedom for Protestants. Mary and Williams dismantled the Dominion of New England and directed governors to call annual assemblies, which allowed colonial elites to reassert control over local affairs. Foundation laid for an empire based on voluntary allegiance c. A Generation of War 1689-1713

1. The Glorious Revolution ushered in a quarter-century warfare between Europe and North America. King William’s War was the first European war to be fought on North American soil. 2. New Yorkers and New Englanders launched 2 prong war of New France in 1690: one in Montreal, other at Quebec. Both invasions failed, and border raids occurred 3. Five Nations Iroquois Confederacy were bloodiest in King Williams’ War and were almost alone against their foes. French armies destroyed all but two villages (1696) 4. 1702, European war erupted again when English fought France and Spain in Queen Anne’s War 5. The most important consequence of imperial wars for Anglo-Americans was political, not military B. Colonial Economics and Societies, 1660-1750

a. Mercantilist Empires in America
1. Mercantilism – theory held that each nation’s power was measured by its wealth (gold) 2. Britain’s mercantilist policies were in all series of Navigation Acts governing imperial commerce: Nav. Act of 1651 – colonial trade be carried on in English (or colonial owned) vessel 1660/1663 – barring colonial merchants from exporting such commodities as sugar and tobacco anywhere except to Eng. 1672 – provided administrative power to enforce above

Molasses Act of 1733 – taxed all foreign molasses entering the mainland colonies 3. Navigation Acts affected Britain in 4 major ways:
Limited all imperial trade to British-owned ships
Barring the export of certain “enumerated goods” (tobacco, rice, furs, indigo) to foreign nations unless these items first passed through Eng. or Scotland Encourage economic diversification
Made the colonies a protected market for the low-priced consumer goods and other exports from Britain...
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