* What was distinctive about the end of Europe’s African and Asian empires as compared to earlier examples of imperial disintegration? * Change: nation-states overthrowing empires who ruled over them for centuries * African revolution focused on nationalism, chain reaction that created many nation-states * Africans felt they were equivalent to their formal rulers despite the difference in culture * Revolutions around the world shared aspects of nationalism – Self-determination: belief that many distinct peoples exist and each deserve an independent state of their own * Austrian and Ottoman empires collapsed after WWI, Russian Empire gave rise to Soviet Union, German and Japanese empires collapsed after WWII, Mexican Revolution (1910) against U.S. presence which was a non-imperialist state -> colonialism and imperialism rendered illegitimate
* What various factors contributed to the end of colonial empires in the 20th century? * Christianity and increasing democratic views contradicted the dictatorship colonial rule and the racism that came with it * Change: Nationalism drove colonialism to create and maintain imperialist states and now played a major part in their disintegration * Conjuncture – World wars weakened Europe, Superpowers US & USSR opposed colonialism ex. US values of liberty and equality, UN served as an internationally recognized organization that condemned colonialism * Second and third-generation Western-educated elites recognized gap between Western values and reality in the colonies * African veterans who fought for the allies alongside Europeans during World War II started to view themselves as equals * Colonies integrated into a global economic network, local modernized elites committed to remaining part of the network -> colonialism seemed unnecessary – empires able to retain economic interests w/o the expense of providing a government
* What obstacles confronted leaders of independence movements such as Gandhi, Nehru, Ho Chi Minh and Nelson Mandela? * Leaders had to recruit members, plot a strategy, negotiate w/ the state, occasionally direct military operations, etc. * Nationalist movements had to rally the people of the state by convincing them to make the conscious choice to join the movement * Contested process – many competing parties coming from different classes, ethnic groups, religions, or regions
* How did India’s nationalist movement change over time? * Change during colonial rule: Before 20th century, India consisted of local cultural identities based on caste, village, tribe, language, etc. British instigated sense of national Indian identity b/c Indians became more aware of their collective difference from the British, modernization in India such as the building of railroads allowed interaction between India’s regions * Indian National Congress (INC) 1885, aimed to become a greater influence in the politics, military, and business of British India, did not seek to overthrow British rule * Change: After World War II, INC gained support to overthrow British rule: in order to attract Indian support for the WWII, Britain promised independence to India, “the gradual development of self-governing institutions,” British attacks on the Islamic Ottoman Empire angered Muslim Indians * Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948) employed strategies that he used against racial segregation in South Africa in India: philosophy of satyagraha, a nonviolent approach to political action, concept of India including Hindus and Muslims alike * Ghandi used his influence to grow the INC appealing to all types of Indians * Change: Raised status of the untouchables, focused on a peaceful and self-sufficient future for India
* What conflicts and differences divided India’s nationalist movement? * Opposing peoples of the rejection of modernization, nonviolent tolerance, and peace between Hindus and Muslims * Many rival parties...
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