Study Guide on Imperialism

Topics: Colonialism, British Empire, Indian independence movement Pages: 8 (1531 words) Published: September 2, 2013
Imperialism Study Guide
Imperialism – one countries domination of the political, economic and/or social life of another country

Reasons for Imperialism:
Economic – raw materials for industrial revolution, trade, cheap labor, new markets Political – nationalism (pride and prestige), national security/border protection, military bases & source of troops Social – missionary (spread Christianity), social Darwinism (survival of the fittest applied to society; European society “the fittest); spread cultural values - racism/cultural superiority; white man’s burden (duty to civilize non-whites)

Forces enabling – maxim gun, railroad/steamships, cure for malaria, internal divisions, industrial revolution

Types of Imperialism
Colony – Imperialist country installs its own government; most direct form of control (Vietnam) Protectorate – territory maintains its own government with strong foreign influence (Egypt) Sphere of Influence – exclusive trading rights (China)

Africa
Berlin Conference 1884: Partitioned Africa – cultural/ethnic/tribal lines disregarded

White Mans burden – duty of Europeans to civilize the rest of the world. Used to justify European colonialism “half-devil, half-child” = racist description of natives – unchristian, needing parental care

Algeria
Colonizer: France
Motive(s):border protection/national security; place to settle unemployed from industrial revolution Resistance: 10 year war between Abd al Qadir (Algeria) and Charles X (France)

Egypt
Colonizer: Britain
Motives: Suez canal – trade; geographic location – cut distance to India Resistance: Britain gradually gained control; Egypt became a British protectorate

Libya
Colonizer: Italy
Motives: National Security
Resistance: Ottoman Turk

Congo
Colonizer: King Leopold II/ Belgium
Motives: Natural resources (rubber, ivory), cheap labor
Effects: stripped land of natural resources (rubber trees, elephants), caused thousands of deaths due to brutality

South Africa
Colonizer(s) Dutch Afrikaners/Boers; Britain
Motives: economic – gold, diamonds
Major Events:
Boer War: British, Dutch(Africaner,Boer), Zulu (Natives) fight for control of South Africa; British win Apartheid – strict system of racial segregation and discrimination in South Africa against black South Africans South African National Congress/African National Congress – created by black South Africans to end racial discrimination in South Africa and bring all Africans together. Nelson Mandela led the ANC and spent 27 years in prison until becoming the first elected President of a democratic South Africa.

Liberia
Colonizer: None – remains independent
*Settled by: Free Slaves from America

Ethiopia:
Colonizer: Italy tried but failed – remains independent
Resistance: Emperor Menelik II led resistance against Italy which ended Italy’s conquest of Ethiopia until after his death

Reasons for Resistance:
Natives felt they were being used as forced labor to help European economy Resented intrusion of Western cultures and religions
Desired control of own destiny
Effectives of Imperialism in Africa:
Positives:
Modern technology
Modern medicine
Schools
Development of infrastructure – roads, ports, railroads (used to transport raw materials to Europe) Negatives:
Decline in traditional culture with increased European influence
Ethnic & tribal lines disregarded causing long-term warfare
Slave Trade effected African economy by depleting able bodied labor source
Natural resources depleted
Natives forced to work for low wages under harsh conditions

India
Colonizer: Britain
Motives: Trade, natural resource (pepper, cinnamon, opium, indigo, cotton, textiles (muslin, calico), social - cultural superiority and missionary Major Events:
East India Company – Rich, powerful trading company set up trading posts and ports in India. Created a monopoly on Indian trade. Expanded control in India through wars and commercial activity. Gradually...
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