What is the public sphere?
An area in social life, independent of government where informed citizens can come together and discuss and influence political action, a domain that used to be solely for political figures and upper society.
What were the major components of the public sphere in colonial North America? The public sphere expanded with the raising of literacy rates and the view that participating in politics and reading was fashionable. Some of the influences were numerous coffee shops and pubs, lots of bookshops, Boston Newsletter, first continuously published newspaper.
Which early American stands out for his contributions?
What were his three major contributions to the growth of the public sphere? Editing the Pennsylvania Gazette which was considered the best edited, founding the Junto, a forum for mutual improvement and for discussion about politics, and the Library Company of Philadelphia which was the first establishment of circulating literature.
What component of freedom was essential to the establishment and growth of the public sphere? Freedom of expression.
Which famous libel trial demonstrated that this freedom was becoming engrained in the popular imagination? 1735 Publisher Zenger brought up on charge of libel against the governor, calling him corrupt, and after he showed evidence that the governor was corrupt he was found not guilty. This showed the public that the truth will always win.
Columbian exchange- transatlantic flow of goods
W > E – tomatoes, potatoes, cotton, tobacco, corn
E > W – sugarcane, rice, horses, pigs, sheep
Black Legend- Based on Las Casas’ book shows image of Spain as uniquely brutal and exploitative colonizer, gives other countries justification to colonize, challenge Spain’s hold
French and Dutch are what kind of empires? Commericial, looking for trading, gold and the Northwest passage
England is what kind of empire? Colonizing, individual men looking for land, and...
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