1. Discuss the European motives for expansion and colonization in the New World.
There are many reasons that contributed to the expansion and colonization by Europeans into the New World. Europeans believed the New World a place to practice religion without religious persecution, a place to find plentiful resources and a place to start new. Many Europeans felt that they could colonize the New World without fear of religious persecution due to English and European Reformations. Protestant Reformation began in 1517, when Martin Luther openly challenged some of the basic practices and beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church. Martin Luther believed that salvation was possible through faith alone and not through good works or through formal practice of religion. Due to Martin Luther’s beliefs he was excommunicated by the pope in 1520. Martin Luther had many followers which lead others to offer alternatives to orthodox Catholicism. One of those was John Calvin a French theologian who believed in the doctrine of predestination or that God “elected” some people to be saved and condemned and others to damnation. These followers were called Calvinists and they believed that the way they lived there lives may show them their chances of salvation. English Reformation occurred due to a political dispute between the king and pope that resulted in doctrinal revolts. In 1529 King Henry VIII broke ties with the Catholic Church because the pope refused to grant him a divorce. After breaking ties with the Catholic Church he made himself head of the Christian faith in his country. This ultimately led to the Church of England which did not satisfy most English Christians. The most ardent Protestants became “Puritans” who hoped to “purify” the church . Radical Puritans became known as Separatists and they wanted to worship as they wanted to in their own congregations which was against English law. James I believed that kings ruled by divine right and antagonized Puritans . These Puritans were rising businessmen which were taxed and not granted charters or the like. Due to the persecution many believed that colonizing in the New World would allow them freedom of religion without persecution. Another motive of expansion and colonization was mercantilism. Mercantilism was a relatively new concept and emerging throughout Europe. Mercantilism was a concept were the nation as a whole, not the individuals within it, was the principal actor in the economy . Mercantilists believed that wealth was limited and could run out therefore you should import as much as you can from other lands and export as little as you can. Due to this concept the Europeans believed it was a good idea to colonize in order to extract as much wealth from colonies and import it back. This would also allow them not to be dependent on foreign rivals. The resources coming from another land would further the wealth of their nation. Starting fresh was another motive for expansion and colonization. It was believed that a new better society would be able to be created. Many were suffering from the economy due to wars and religious persecution. In England many were finding it difficult to feed their own people due to rising populations and the enclosure movement. Due to the high demand for wool many landowners turned their land into pastures for sheep instead of land that they used to harvest crops. This made the Europeans want a fresh and new start in new lands which would not be like the ones they were use to in the Old World. There were many reasons and motives to expand and colonize the New World. Whatever the reason for leaving the Old World to colonize the New World each group had a reason and a hope for something better.
2. Describe the different colonial transplantations that occurred in Virginia, Maryland, and Massachusetts Bay.
There were many differences in the colonial transplantations that occurred in Virginia, Maryland and...
Cited: Brinkley, Alan. American History Connecting with the Past Volume 1: To 1865 . New York: McGraw-Hill, 2012.
Carlson, Elizabeth. As It Was In The Begining.
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