APUSH Ch. 2+3 Notes

Topics: Colonialism, Native Americans in the United States, Colony Pages: 5 (1382 words) Published: October 6, 2013
1. Mercantilism
a. Money = Power
b. As a Moral Revolution
b.i. Trade
b.i.1. Good producing colonies are essential to the economic growth of an empire b.ii. A fixed supply of wealth exists in the world
b.iii. To augment one’s wealth, one must take the wealth of one’s rival b.iv. wars of trade now replace wars of religion
c. Principles
c.i. The state must control trade in order to:
c.i.1. Enhance national strength
c.i.2. Provide self-sufficiency
c.i.3. Pay a standing military
c.ii. Favorable balance of trade must exist
c.iii. Concentration on production or marketable goods
c.iv. Limits on importation of goods and services
c.v. Necessary accumulation of hard currency, silver and gold, to support national wealth and power d. Great Britain
d.i. Four major aims:
d.i.1. Encourage growth of a native merchant marine fleet
d.i.2. Protect English manufacturers from foreign competition d.i.3. Protect English farmers, especially grain farmers
d.i.4. Accumulate as much hard currency as possible
d.i.4.a. Colonists to pay for everything with hard currency
d.i.4.a.i. Paper script not recognized as legal tender - drains gold from American colonies 2. Jamestown and Plymouth
a. Arrival
a.i. 1607
a.i.1. 104 men
a.i.2. First permanent English settlement in Western Hemisphere b. 1620
b.i. Mayflower arrives at Plymouth
c. Jamestown
c.i. Economic motivation
c.i.1. 1606 - Virginia Company founded
c.i.1.a. Expand English trade
c.i.1.b. Open markets for English manufactured goods
c.i.1.c. Attain financial profit through sales of stock

c.ii. Settlers
c.ii.1. Young, inexperienced, unwilling to work, no wilderness survival skills c.ii.2. Internal fighting
c.ii.3. Poor relations with Natives (Powhatan)
c.ii.4. Absence of family unit
c.iii. Of original 104 settlers, only 38 survive the first year d. Religious motivation
d.i. Move from England to Netherlands (1607-1609)
d.i.1. Felt Dutch were corrupting influence
d.i.1.a. Liberal lifestyle, no connection to English heritage e. Settlers
e.i. Small family units, some experienced tradesmen
e.i.1. Ability to cooperate, experience with hard work, but little experience farming e.i.1.a. Half die during first winter
f. Mayflower Compact
f.i. Signed upon arrival by all 100 passengers, bound the group together through majority rule g. Role of Religion
g.i. Jamestown - Anglicans
g.ii. Pilgrims - Puritan Church
g.ii.1. Dissenters from Anglican Church
g.ii.2. Covenant Theology
g.ii.2.a. God made two contracts with man
g.ii.2.a.i. Covenant of Works
g.ii.2.a.i.1. All humans deserve damnation
g.ii.2.a.ii. Covenant of Grace
g.ii.2.a.ii.1. God will save the ‘chosen people’
h. Government
h.i. House of Burgesses - 1619
h.i.1. First legislative assembly in ‘New World’ meets at Jamestown church h.i.1.a. Birth of American representative government
h.i.1.b. First order of business - setting minimum price for tobacco h.ii. Pilgrims abide by self-governing Mayflower Compact
h.ii.1. “Combine ourselves together into a Civil Body Politic, for our better ordering and preservation and furtherance of the ends aforesaid” 3. Native American Relations
a. Jamestown - First Indian War (1609-1614)
a.i. Lack of stable leadership following John Smith’s departure leads to settlers provoking conflict with Powhatan

a.ii. Vast cultural, philosophical differences, combined with English desire to dominate led to continued conflict b. Prior to Pilgrim arrival, epidemic had wiped out majority of natives in New England b.i. Survivors befriended, assisted colonists

b.ii. 1636
b.ii.1. Pequot War begun by Massachusetts Bay Puritans ends good relations 4. England and Colonial Affairs
a. Until 1696 the Privy Council, private advisors to the king, deal with colonial affairs b. Evolve into the ‘Lords of Trade’ under William of Orange b.i. Responsible for formulation colonial policy

c. Navigation act of 1696 creates the ‘Lords of Trade and Plantations’ - become known as ‘Board of Trade.’...
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