For the first week of this course, June 10th to the 14th, 2013, please read the Faragher textbook, Chapters One to Three.
These chapters focus on early Native American societies and cultures and the coming of European colonization. Pay particular attention to the emerging relationships between these two groups. Be able to discuss motivations of Spanish, French, and English conquest and colonization. Why does the textbook label Spanish and French America as "frontiers of inclusion" and English America as a "frontier of exclusion?" The French and Spanish practiced “frontiers of inclusion” in their colonies, mixing colonial and native cultures. This was largely because the Spanish required native labor on their sugar plantations and mines, and the French did not have the manpower to conquer native peoples and instead forged trading and military alliances with them to dominate the fur trade in the North Atlantic. Neither nation was willing to send many settlers to their colonies, and therefore relied on the native populations. The English, and later the Dutch, practiced “frontiers of exclusion” because their colonies were receiving many immigrants, based on the economic transformation in England, caused by enclosures (which turned out the rural farmer population and sent them into the cities, looking for work), that established a rising merchant and commercial class. With a much larger labor force, the English had no need for native populations and therefore excluded them from society. This need was filled by indentured servants and later slaves. In what other ways do these colonial empires differ?
France did not have the manpower to conquer and exploit the natives, so instead they created alliances with the tribes to control commerce. Also, unlike the Spanish Jesuits who insisted on the natives learning Spanish customs, the French Franciscans adopted local customs and melded Christianity to it. The English, saying that the Indians were savages with no rights...
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