P1- Explain the principle psychological perspective

Topics: Psychology, B. F. Skinner, Human Pages: 4 (1465 words) Published: April 7, 2014

Behaviourist
A perspective means a way of seeing things. Behaviourist is the first approach in this criterion. Behaviourist is the study of human minds, they study behaviour. The behaviourist sees the brain as a black box, this is because as they study animals it is easy to experiment, and they think that humans and animals are similar. The behaviourist wanted to become scientist, which is why they carried out the experiment. Although JB Watson (1887) was the founder of this theorist he studied the work of Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936). Pavlov did an experiment once on a dog. The dog salivated every time Pavlov came to the lab with the food. The dog then started associating the time, the bell and the brown coat. This kind of association is called classic conditioning. JB Watson also once experimented on a little boy called Albert. JB Watson taught Albert to have fear of the rats. Albert had a white fluffy rabbit. One day a white rat came pass Albert, but Albert did not seem to be frightened. JB Watson stood behind Albert’s back with metals. Every time the rat went pass JB banged the metals and Albert was startled, JB did this couple of times until Albert was scared of the rat, however Albert was not only scared of the white rat, it was also scared of his white fluffy rabbit as them to animals has the same colour. BF Skinner was also another behaviourist theorist, he did an experiment on a rat in a cage, he put some food on the food pallet for the rat, the rat accidently put its foot on the lever and food came out. So the rat did this few time and knew that if the rat puts the foot on the lever food would come out, this type of experiment was positive reinforcement. On the opposite Skinner experimented on the negative reinforcement. Skinner investigated this by giving the rat a small electric shock whenever it pressed the lever. The consequence of lever pressing was experienced as unpleasant, so the rat learnt to stop pressing the lever. Psycho dynamic

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