The colonial overseas British empire was made possible by (modern) science in two ways. First, science provided the physical means of acquisition of territory and its control. Second, the development of the powerful intellectual system of modern science gave Europe a cultural and ethnic superiority which in turn provided legitimacy for the colonial rule. From 1869 till, say, 1914 the Indian upper class made conscientious efforts to cultivate pure science with a view to countering the ideological domination by the British. As a corollary, the role of science as a new means of production of wealth was largely ignored. Independent India's attitude towards science has been fashioned by its colonial experience. Thus India has sought to utilize applied science in furthering its foreign policy objectives. Under the Indian auspices, modern science was Brahminized during the colonial period, and Kshatriya-ized after independence. The artisanization of modern science that gave Europe its strength never took place in India. In 1947, Jawaharlal Nehru became the first prime minister of India, after independencefrom the British Empire, which became the Republic of India upon passage of the IndianConstitution on Jan. 26, 1950. The Congress Party ruled India throughout nearly theentire post-independence period until the late 1990s, during which time Nehru's legacyinfluenced policies even after his death in 1964. In the three decades followingindependence, India clashed with China and Pakistan on more than one occasion overborder disputes and Kashmir.
Pre1947- Society and Culture - People lived with fear of English rulers that imposed crazy taxes on agriculture, most jobs were for the English monarchy. Music and dance were mostly folk. Radio was the means of mass communication. Culturally, people where honest and fearless in their talk. Modern courtship and sexuality was considered taboo.
After 1947 - Democracy - People made the Government and peace
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