POL – 1
Prompt: Analyze the factors behind competition, cooperation, and conflict among the different societies and social groups in North America during the colonial period. Over-Arching Question: How and why have different political and social groups competed for influence over society and government in what would become the United States?
Key Concept 1.2: European overseas expansion resulted in the Columbian Exchange, a series of interactions and adaptations among societies across the Atlantic. a. European expansion into the Western Hemisphere caused intense social/religious, political, and economic competition in Europe and the promotion of empire building. European exploration and conquest were fueled by a desire for new sources of wealth, increased power and status, and converts to Christianity. b. New crops from the Americans stimulated European population growth, while new sources of mineral wealth facilitated the European shift from feudalism to capitalism. Ex. Corn, potatoes
c. Improvements in technology and more organized methods for conducting international trade helped drive changes to economies in Europe and the Americas. Ex. Sextant, joint-stock companies
Key Concept 1.3: Contacts among American Indians, Africans, and Europeans challenged the worldview of each group. I. Native peoples and Africans in the Americas strove to maintain their political and cultural autonomy in the face of European challenges to their independence and core beliefs. a. European attempts to change American Indian beliefs and worldviews on basic social issues such as religion, gender roles, and the family, and the relationship of people with the natural environment led to American Indian resistance and conflict. Ex. Spanish mission system, Pueblo, Juan de Onate
b. In spite of slavery, Africans’ cultural and linguistic adaptations to the Western Hemisphere resulted in varying degrees of cultural preservation and autonomy Ex. Maroon communities in Brazil and the Caribbean, mixing of Christianity and traditional African religions Period Two- 1607-1754
Europeans and American Indians maneuvered and fought for dominance, control, and security in North America, and distinctive colonial and native societies emerged. Key Concept 2.1:
II. The British-American system of slavery developed out of the economic, demographic, and geographic characteristics of the British-controlled regions of the New World. a. Unlike Spanish, French, and Dutch colonies, which accepted intermarriage and cross-racial sexual unions with native peoples (and, in Spain’s case, with enslaved Africans), English colonies attracted both males and females who rarely intermarried with wither native peoples or Africans, leading to the development of a rigid racial hierarchy. b. The abundance of land, shortage of indentured servants, the lack of an effective means to enslave native people, and the growing European demand for colonial goods led to the emergence of the Atlantic slave trade. c. Reinforced by a strong belief in British racial and cultural superiority, the British system enslaved black people in perpetuity, altered African gender and kinship relationships in the colonies, and was one factor that led the British colonists into violent confrontations with native peoples. d. Africans developed both overt and covert means to resist the dehumanizing aspects of slavery.
Key Concepts 2.2: European colonization efforts in North America stimulated intercultural contact and intensified conflict between the various groups of colonizers and native peoples. I. Competition over resources between European rivals led to conflict within and between North American colonial possessions and American Indians. a. Conflicts in Europe spread to North America, as French, Dutch, British, and Spanish colonies allied, traded with, and armed American Indian groups, leading to continuing political instability. Ex. Beaver Wars, Chickasaw Wars
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