Research: Superpowers and the developing world
UK and Zambia: Dependency Theory
Zambia was once UK colony of Northern Rhodesia. It gained its independence in 1964. By the standards of sub-Saharan Africa, Zambia has had quite peaceful post colonial history, not having suffered from war and internal conflict like ma y of its neighbours. Zambia has the major disadvantage of being landlocked but has large farmlands but only 20% of usable land is actually being farmed. in the 1960's some left wing academics argued that despite independence many developing African countries existed in a state of dependency but underdevelopment. Andre Gunder Frank saw periphery countries providing services to core and more developed countries.; such as cheap commodities, labour in form of migration to 'brain drain' countries and markets for manufactured goods. The developed countries controlled the development of developing nations by setting the prices paid for goods and interfering with economies via World Bank and International Monetary Fund by using economic and military aid to 'buy' the loyalty of the African states. Theorists argue that developed capitalists countries have no interest in the economic development of poor nations as such development would rob them of a cheap source of materials and labour. This state of dependency is sometimes referred to as neo-colonialism. The developed would use trade and economic power to control developing countries as if they were still colonies. For Zambia this has made him run up huge debts totalling over $6billion in 2000 and then having to follow a policy of economic liberalisation under the World Banks Highly Indebted Poor Countries Initiative, in order for the debts to be written down; selling copper at prices set by the international market and nationalising copper mines. However the anti-thesis to this is that some countries have developed since independence in 1945. The Asian Tiger countries' economies and NIC's and RIC's have...
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